Manual Die Expansion des Osmanischen Reiches: Die Schlacht um Konstantinopel 1453 (German Edition)

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Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Reconfiguring the Fifteenth-Century Crusade. Front Matter Pages i-xiii.

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Pages At the same time it obtained larger quantities of financial means, thus establishing the financial basis for its operation. K 36,, were gathered, and this was the basis for the Government to be able to fund in November the operation of various governmental bodies and institutions in Slovene territory in the total sum of K 3,,, and to allocate a total of K 9,, for the needs of its departments.

The aforementioned decree on transitional administration enabled the government to take control of various branches of the Slovene economy, and to take over the management of trade supervision, mining and measurement offices in Slovenia, and all financial authority, financial offices, treasuries and all monopolistic companies. For the Slovene territory it established a post and telegraph directorate, a directorate for national railways and management for the Southern Railway, which were subordinated to the government.

In addition, by adopting certain other decrees it spread the operation of important economic institutions from Ljubljana to the whole of Slovenia, such as the Slovene Agricultural Society, the financial administration and management, the office for foodstuffs, and the chambers of commerce and trade; moreover, the head office of the chamber of engineers was transferred from Trieste to Ljubljana and assigned the entire Slovene territory in which to operate.

Alongside the It also did not take up economic reorganization of the Primorska region and did not assess the role of Trieste in future economic development, which was due to the Italian occupation of both Primorska and Trieste. Despite this, the government defined a historically new quality of national life for the Slovene people, who in the State of SCS proved to be more than capable of meeting key requirements in the economic sector, which constituted the precondition for free national development.

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At the conclusion, let us pay some attention to another aspect of the Slovene scene of that time. Parallel to reforming the foundations of the economic sphere, individual spontaneous revolutionary phenomena occurred in November taking the form of peasants encroaching on the property of large landowners. However, the peasants were more direct in their actions. In Prekmurje, on 5 November returning soldiers attacked the castle of the countess of Zichy in Beltinci, and in the following days the revolt spread to neighbouring places.

Hungarian authorities soon crushed the revolt. In expressing social and economic demands this movement supported German tendencies toward Slovene territory and was mainly of a political character. With the support of the Slovene general Rudolf Maister, and after consenting to all social demands, the National Government in the beginning of December quelled this strike movement in Maribor. At the end attention must be drawn to the fact that the national statehood achieved by the Slovenes in the State of SCS constituted only a brief experience of national political independence which marked their path to a new state community of Yugoslav nations formed on 1 December Vladimir Ravnikar, Ph.

The first Yugoslav state constitutionally enacted Yugoslav state centralism and national unitarianism; the latter did not acknowledge the existence of the historically formed individual Yugoslav nationalities, but the existence of only one, that is, the Yugoslav nation. This was the reason why the majority of Slovenes had developed, already by the beginning of the s, demands for national selfdetermination and an autonomous and federalist re-arrangement of the Yugoslav state.

The Slovenes did not give up these demands all the way up to the end of the first Yugoslavia in , and also within all existing Slovene military and political factors during the Second World War.

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The demand that the Yugoslav state should enable an entirely free and independent Slovene national swing was present also in the second, federative Yugoslav community. In the end it was realised outside of it, with the establishment in of the independent Slovene national state, the Republic of Slovenia. Obstajala je do 1. The two conservative newspapers in Styria, i. To them goes the merit for the spreading of the Catholic movement in this region. The newspapers were issued and printed in the Printing Press of St.

Cyril in Maribor. The latter was the connecting point of the Styrian Catholic movement in terms of ideas as well as organization.

Key words: Slovenian political history, political parties in Styria, political Catholicism, printing house of st. Thus a long period of political unity among the Styrian Slovenes came to an end. It almost ceased to operate during the First World War, due to its internal disagreements.

In the declaration the deputies demanded the unification of all Yugoslav countries within the Habsburg Monarchy in an independent state body under the authority of the Habsburg Monarchy. Yugoslav community within the framework of Austria-Hungary. The party, as the most powerful Yugoslav party in the Vienna Parliament, managed to gain the majority of Yugoslav deputies to cooperate in the implementation of the programme aims, which is why its deputies were the most deserving for solving the Yugoslav issue and for the acceptance of the May Declaration. He studied theology in Maribor from to Prior to the First World War, he was mainly concerned with non-political organizations, religious, educational, national defence and economic activities in the Slovenian Christian-Social Union of Styria, where he functioned as Vice-President President since In , he worked for the popularization of the May Declaration, which led him into politics.

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As deputy, he was known for his fundamental, well prepared and researched speeches some of his speeches were issued in a booklet entitled Za svobodo in pravo, Maribor, Golec, Spomini, pp. As a Mayor of Orehova vas, he managed to carry out road repairs and open the railway station in After the coup, he was a member of the National Council for Styria, appointed to the Temporary National Representative Body in and elected to the Constituent Assembly in SBL, II.

Volume, p. He was elected to the Austrian Parliament as a representative of the general curia in the election, where he remained until the downfall of Austria-Hungary and was elected to the Styrian Provincial Assembly in In May , he was elected president of the Yugoslavian Parliamentary Club, on behalf of which he read the May 8. Declaration on 30 May , demanding unification of all Yugoslav countries within the Habsburg Monarchy in an independent state body under the authorities of the Habsburg Monarchy. He was the head of the National Council until 3 December , when it ceased to function after the Yugoslav unification.

From July to April he was the president of the Yugoslav Government. After the establishment of the dictatorship in , he was the Minister of Transport and after that the Minister of Forestry and Mines. Beside his political functions, he was also a representative of the Temporary National Representative Body of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes from In and , he was a deputy of the Constituent Assembly and in and a deputy of the Legislative Assembly of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

In , and , he was elected deputy of the National Assembly. In he was elected president of the Senate of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. SBL, I. Volume, pp. He graduated from secondary school in Ljubljana in and studied at the Theological College in Ljubljana until Since May , he was assistant dean at the Theological Seminary in Ljubljana. He was dean in Sarajevo from and was appointed Bishop of Ljubljana in As bishop he was striving to reorganize the clerical service, he also served as the patron of education in , he established St.

SBL, Volume I, p. The fundamental reasons for establishing contacts with the Serbian Radical Party were, primarily, the unsettled territory issue among The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Austria and Italy and secondly, the effort to preserve Slovenian autonomy in the new country. National Council in Zagreb, a newly founded representative body, was established at a conference on 5 and 6 October Cyril in Maribor on 26 September Cyril in Maribor evolved from the first Slovenian Catholic Printing Society and was one of the principal economic and cultural factors for the Slovenes in Styria prior to the First World War.

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The supporters and activists of Catholic political, educational and economic organizations used to gather there. The committee rejected the proposition and re-established the republican form of government. There were only 4 commissariats instead of the previous 12 interior, education, jurisdiction and agriculture , which provoked protests among the members against the Cabinet in Belgrade accompanied by the demands to establish the Provincial Assembly for Slovenia. This conflict is known in historiography as February provincial crisis. The demands met a severe resistance of the government, which urged the initiation of centralistic measures in the government at that time, which is why the formation of the assembly was not approved by the government.

It was stated that the convening of the Provincial Assembly was an indispensable national and economic necessity due to the unsettled border issue in Carinthia, problems with food supply and road network maintenance. However, its legal status was exceptional compared with other joined members. After graduation in , he studied law in Graz and Vienna where he conferred the title of doctor in As a lawyer he moved to Maribor in and devoted himself to the national awakening of the Slovenes in Styria.

After the coup he was the head of the defence in the Styrian National Council. From , he was the regent of the Maribor district, in the government commissioner of the town municipality of Maribor and from , he was the Mayor of the town of Maribor. He was elected president of the regional assembly and committee in Maribor in After the establishment of dictatorship in , he was the leader of the regional self-government until its abolishment after the country had been divided into provinces.

Cyril in July Glas iz Posavja, Slovenski gospodar, The Cabinet delayed the summons of the Temporary National Representative Body and solved the issues under its authority with regulations, which caused confusion in the government and economy. The demands were as follows: solving currency issues, agrarian reform implementation, supply for the population with basic necessaries of life and legal provisions in the area of educational system to establish Slovenian University.

National Radical Party policy. Since they were both defending the idea of autonomy in their programme, the parties were political rivals in the new country. At the beginning of , disagreements between their leaders grew into a public dispute, gaining wider dimensions after the occupation of Prekmurje region by the Yugoslav Army. Lovrencu na Pohorju, Slovenski gospodar, Zakaj napadajo demokrati dr. Brejc Janko, Od prevrata do ustave, in: Slovenci v desetletju Uredil: Josip Mal, Ljubljana , p. The dispute among the ministers of the National Radical and Yugoslav Democratic Party culminated at the proceedings of the Cabinet on 26 and 28 July Consequently, on 1 August , the Government tendered its resignation.

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Land distribution would be under the supervision of a special agrarian reform office in the Provincial Government in Ljubljana. Due to desire to restore the economic cooperative system, they were striving for the immediate realization of the agrarian reform. They strived for the convening of the Chamber of Agriculture; establishment of universal, equal and secret suffrage; municipal elec-.

However, it was re-established on 16 October, and practically unchanged. Nevertheless, on 15 December , it was suspended by the government until 15 February At the beginning of , they demanded universal suffrage and organized protest meetings, several of them also took place in Styria.


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A campaign against Viljem Pfeifer, Ph. At the end of , the party reached the decision to change crown for dinar at a ration of 1 to 1, which had frequently been discussed in the temporary National Representative body by Josip Hohnjec. Assembly or else the Government would be taken away its legitimacy. After finishing local elementary school, he took over a farm and involved himself in local politics. In , he became a mayor in Malna.

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In , he withdrew from the party and confined himself to local politics and took up the post of mayor. He attended grammar school in Celje and Novo mesto. He was nationally and culturally active already in his secondary school years and especially as an undergraduate. He studied medicine in Vienna and conferred the degree of doctor in After he completed his studies, he worked as a ward doctor in the provincial hospital in Ljubljana, afterwards in the mental hospital in Studenec and in the Vienna army hospital.

He established his medical practice in Konjice in , where he was confronted with severe national conflicts. In September , he was appointed district physician in Kozje. In , he was the president of the fourth Catholic gathering in Ljubljana. Komisar dr.